Wednesday, August 26, 2009

Monograph #5 Karl Marx

Bolsheviks Dreams Utopia

Between late 19th century and 20th century, Russia has gone through the rapid industrialization. At first it seemed that Russia was greatly developing and progressing in terms of Economy, but there came a lot of problems following rapid changes in society as the result of industrialization.

Most of workmen were not given proper environment that they ought to be given. And they were not also guaranteed even minimum wages. Their lives were becoming worse more and more while the factory owners and capitalists were becoming rich. There was economic wealth of Nation and economic progresses and development. However the society was getting so far from people’s happiness and social welfare. Materialism prevailed and it led society to be more inhumane. \

Under autocracy of Nicholas II, who oppressed his citizens and was not concerned with social welfare of people but was busy to achieve his own interests and ambitions. Turning on top of another, the failure of Russia in World War I brought chaos in society. This social phase urged social reform.

Bolsheviks (or "Maximalist"), founded by Vladimir Lenin, were an organization of professional revolutionaries under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves as the vanguard of the revolutionary working class of Russia(Wikipedia, 2009). It follows a Marxist program- the overthrow Tsarism, the establishment of constitutional government, and, finally, the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of a Communist society (Encarta, 2003).

As Marxist, Bolsheviks were very much concerned with equality among people in the society and admiring the values of workers. This idea of Bolsheviks was attractive enough to convince the people of working class who suffered under the tsarist. That is why the main source of power to revolutionize was mass workers.

In 1917, there was a revolution that stoke down reign of Nicholas II. It is the “October Revolution”. This revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin and was based upon Lenin's writing on the ideas of Karl Marx, a political ideology often known as Marxism-Leninism. It marked the beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century. It was far less sporadic than the revolution of February and came about as the result of deliberate planning and coordinated activity to that end. Though Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party, it has been argued that since Lenin wasn't present during the actual takeover of the Winter Palace, it was really Trotsky's organization and direction that led the revolution, spurred by the motivation Lenin instigated within his party.(Wikipedia, 2009) Critics on the Right have long argued that the financial and logistical assistance of German intelligence via their key agent, Alexander Parvus was a key component as well, though historians are divided, for the evidence is sparse.

On 7 November 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in a revolt against the ineffective Provisional Government (Russia was still using the Julian Calendar at the time, so period references show a 25 October date). The October revolution ended the phase of the revolution instigated in February, replacing Russia's short-lived provisional parliamentary government with government by soviets, local councils elected by bodies of workers and peasants. Liberal and monarchist forces, loosely organized into the White Army, immediately went to war against the Bolsheviks' Red Army.

Soviet membership was initially freely elected, but many members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, anarchists, and other leftists opposed the Bolsheviks through the soviets. When it became clear that the Bolsheviks had little support outside of the industrialized areas of Saint Petersburg and Moscow, they barred non-Bolsheviks from membership in the soviets. Other socialists revolted and called for "a third Russian revolution." The most notable instances were the Tambov rebellion, 1919–1921, and the Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921. These movements, which made a wide range of demands and lacked effective coordination, were eventually defeated along with the White Army during the Civil War.

As the result, the Provincial Government was destroyed and Bolsheviks established the first Communist government in the world. As what is mentioned above, this revolution was based on the idea of Karl Marx which promotes classless society in which every citizen is treated equally and enjoys social welfare. In order to achieve this social state, there were many people who submitted their blood.

Sadly, in fact that ideal society Bolsheviks dreamed was not achieved. After 70 years from establishment of the first communist government, Soviet Union was vanished into the History with many problems that it had. However we remember and History tells us that there were the people who dreamed Utopia.


Russian Revolution(1917), (August 2, 2009). In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 13:44 August 2, 2009 from

Bolsheviks, (August 10, 2009). In Wikipedia . the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:35 August 10, 2009 from

Bolshevism (1993-2003). In Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corporation

David W. Koeller (1996). The Bolshevik Revolution. Retrieved from

No comments:

Post a Comment